Shasida Mere guessing and personal opinion are dtridtly forbidden in this domain. A demonstration of the two lowest-level functions of the sabab may be seen in the exegesis of verse 2: Abu Bakr said to him: Select Translation Selections include: I gave her to him in marriage al-wwahidi they remained married as long as Allah willed. Asbab al-Nuzul The Muslims mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, saying: To proceed from this: Shortly after this he died. From al-nyzul historical point of view, it is the firSt extant attempt to colled: And whenever something seemed problematic to them, they questioned him to clarify the matter.
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The term "sabab" in its technical sense meaning "occasion of revelation" seems to begin to make its appearance in the works of Tabari d. Al-Jassas d. Watt , for example, stressed the narratological significance of these types of reports: "The Quranic allusions had to be elaborated into complete stories and the background filled in if the main ideas were to be impressed on the minds of simple men.
In other words, no process of spinning a narrative around a Quranic verse seems to have taken place Quranic materials only began to be applied to the non-Quranic basic narrative framework when the sacred scripture became a standard source of guidance.
This was achieved by dragging various passages from the scriptures into the narrative. Muslim scholars agree that the revelations of the Quran can be divided into two broad types: One type includes passages of the Quran which were revealed in response to specific events, incidents or questions put forward to Muhammad. The second type includes passages of the Quran which were not direct responses to any historical or social development in the life of the Muslim community.
A thorough understanding of the first type of passages, therefore, depend on knowing the circumstances of the events which occasioned them. Such knowledge is an important tool for explaining the meanings of this type of Quranic verses. As Rippin notes: Such reports are cited These problems span the hermeneutical spectrum, from the most basic units of linguistic meaning to such technical intellectual disciplines as law and philosophy and all points in between. One of the very basic problem is that it is often impossible to tell where one pericope ends and the next one begins.
Narratological "Qissaic" : What is the story being told? Why do the characters in it react in the way they do? Legal " Hukmic " : What are the legal implications of a particular verse and how do these relate to the remaining corpus of Islamic holy law? Is the ruling limited in scope to the circumstances or even unique instant in which it was revealed, or does it define a general principle with broad applicability?
Will ye not understand? The sabab thus fixes the meaning of the pronoun "ye", and also provides a gloss for the word "right conduct" birr as the Sunnah of Muhammed.
Does one verse continue the unit of meaning begun by preceding verses, or does it initiate a new one? It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them except in fear. For them there is nothing but disgrace in this world, and in the world to come, an exceeding torment.
For Allah is all-Pervading, all-Knowing. One report "suggests this verse [Q. In it, verses Q. The pagans of Mecca are so pleased by this that they immediately cease their persecution of the Muslims, to the extent that a group of Abyssinian refugees begins to return home. Yet Muhammad is later sternly chastised by the angel Gabriel for this concession to Meccan paganism, at which point God reveals Q. These are nothing but names which ye have devised,- ye and your fathers,- for which Allah has sent down no authority whatever.
They follow nothing but conjecture and what their own souls desire! Safa and Marwa are among the Symbols of Allah. So if those who visit the House in the Season or at other times, should compass them round , it is no sin in them.
And if any one obeyeth his own impulse to good,- be sure that Allah is He Who recogniseth and knoweth. The first sabab states that the pagan Arabs practiced this ur-Islamically[ clarification needed ] sanctioned ritual, but that they so adulterated it with idolatry that the first Muslims pressed to abandon it until Q. Legal[ edit ] Legal exegesis is the most hermeneutically complex level of interpretation for several reasons.
One is that every ruling must be considered with respect to the corpus of Islamic holy law. Note that the foil may not always be a particular verse or pericope, but a principle synthesized from multiple rulings. The second, even more basic, complexity resides in determining which verses have legal content. A seemingly proscriptive verse may be made merely polemical by interpretation, while a seemingly non-proscriptive verse may have actual legal import. Lastly, as an example of juridical inflation, is Q.
History of Asbab al-Nuzul works[ edit ] The earliest and the most important work in this genre is undoubtedly Kitab asbab al-Nuzul "Book of occasions of revelation" of Ali ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi d. He was a poet, philologist, grammarian and Quranic commentator.
In fact, He was considered a great commentator of the Quran of his time. His main teacher was the famous Quranic commentator al-Thalabi d.
Suyuti wrote his book about four centuries after al-Wahidi. The name of his book is Lubab al-Nuqul fi Asbab al-Nuzul meaning "The best of narrations concerning the circumstances of revelation". Exists in two manuscripts copies, one at the Chester Beatty Library Manuscript A manuscript Berlin Staatsbibliothek , Catalog no.
Consists of sabab and naskh material interspersed, with the former containing very abbreviated isnads where only the first authority is listed. According to its final page this manuscript was written in The chief innovation of the genre was organizational i.
ASBAB AL-NUZUL BY AL-WAHIDI PDF