Published21 Jun Abstract Dinoderus porcellus is considered as the most important pest of stored yam chips and compounds extracted from plants can be used for its control. The present study aimed to test the insecticidal and repellent activities of powders and extracts of leaves of Bridelia ferruginea, Blighia sapida, and Khaya senegalensis against D. The results of the experiment revealed that all plant powders were effective as repellents. Antouka was more effective as insecticidal than the plant powders and minimal weight loss was observed with B. Among treatments, propanol extract of K.
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Hue angle is calculated using Eq. Colour fastness to crocking of dyed cotton fabrics dry and wet rubbing, alkaline and acidic perspiration was determined according to AATCC Test Method 8 Results and discussion Dye extraction The yield of the extract of B. Yield of crude dye was The reduction in yield of extracted dye after purification operation was due to removal of wax, fat and other related impurities from the crude dye.
This observation agreed with Uddin , in purification of the natural dyestuff extracted from mango back for application on protein fibres. The yield obtained in extraction of B. These functional groups indicate presence of phenolic, aromatic, carbonyl and alkoxyl fragments in the dye structure.
The presence of these fragments in the dye structure predicts possibility of chromophoric compounds in the dye to be quercetin and its derivatives Fig. This observation agreed with the findings made by Bechtold et al. The presence of substituent R1—4 in the dye confers water solubility and enhances colour formation on B. The linearity and ability of calibration graph to pass through the origin made it agree with Beer-Lambert law as described by Uddin This is due to enhancement in affinity of dye for the cellulosic fabric by mordant used in mordanted dyed fabric Uddin Dye-uptake of post-mordanted dyed fabric equal to that of unmordanted dyed fabric, because post-mordanted mordanting process was done after dyeing process.
The meta-mordanted dyed cellulosic fabrics have lower dye-uptake than pre-mordanted dyed fabrics. This observation agreed with findings made by Yusuf et al. The mordanted B.
This might be as a result of ability of metal salts to enhance hue of natural dye in cellulosic fabric. This observation agreed with the finding of Bukhari et al. It was also observed that pre-mordanted dyed fabrics have deepest shade among all dyed cellulosic fabric.
Deeper shade was seen in post-mordanted dyed fabrics and meta-mordanted dyed fabrics have lightest shade among all mordanted dyed cotton fabrics. This is in line with Yusuf et al. In general, all the calcium chloride mordanted dyed fabrics are deeper in shade than their corresponding alum mordanted dyed cellulosic fabrics Fig.
Calcium chloride mordanted dyed cotton fabrics have deeper colour than alum mordanted dyed cotton fabrics. This further confirms that mordant enhances dye hue on cellulosic fabric. This is in agreement with Shabbir et al.
Calcium chloride mordanted dyed fabrics have higher colour strength values than alum mordanted dyed fabrics.
This observation may be as a result of deeper colour of calcium chloride mordanted dyed fabrics than alum mordanted dyed fabrics. Rather et al. These observations agreed with Sufian et al. The ability of mordant metal ion to chelate dye molecules forming complex in dyed fabric makes mordanted dyed fabrics of higher fastness properties than unmordanted fabric. The presence of covalent, coordinate and hydrogen bonds, in addition to complex dye formation Fig.
The alum mordanted dyed fabrics that contain only covalent and coordinate bonds in addition to complex dye-metal-fabric formations Fig. Dye molecules aggregation, together with covalent and hydrogen bonds conferred good fastness properties on unmordanted dyed fabric Fig. These observations agreed with Geelani et al. Conclusions Mordanting enhances hue and fastness properties of natural dyed cotton fabric.
Pre-mordanting dyeing technique gave dyed cellulosic fabric with deepest hue and post-mordanting technique gave dyed fabrics with best fastness properties.
Calcium chloride was seen to be a mordant with deeper hue development on B. Therefore, B. Availability of data and materials All the necesssary data and materials supporting our findings can be found within the article. References Ali, M. Extraction of natural dye from walnut bark and its dyeing properties on wool yarn. Journal of Natural Fibres, 13, —
Please consult your physician or pharmacist or product package for this information. Precautions Please consult your physician or pharmacist or product package for this information. Interactions with Bridelia Ferruginea Please consult your physician or pharmacist or product package for this information. When not to use Bridelia Ferruginea Please consult your physician or pharmacist or product package for this information.
Espèce Bridelia ferruginea de la famille des Phyllanthaceae
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Published online Dec Aderogba , 3 Uchechukwu P. Okorji , 1 and Bernd L.
Hue angle is calculated using Eq. Colour fastness to crocking of dyed cotton fabrics dry and wet rubbing, alkaline and acidic perspiration was determined according to AATCC Test Method 8 Results and discussion Dye extraction The yield of the extract of B. Yield of crude dye was
Correspondence address:Olufunsho Awodele, PhD. E-MAIL: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Bridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils. Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats.