CACYREUS MARSHALLI PDF

September Freilandfotos: Jens Philipp , det. Peter Sonderegger Oktober Foto: Rudolf Bryner , det. August Foto: Dietmar Laux , det. Reinhard Krause, conf.

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In , the geranium bronze butterfly was first recorded in Rome , Italy , and rapidly spread along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastal areas before extending inland. In order to eat the stem of these plants, the larvae drill into the stems, causing damage to the plants. The eggs are 0. The eggs are typically laid close to the flower buds, but are occasionally laid on the leaves.

The laying of eggs usually occurs during summer months, while caterpillar activity has been recorded in the summer, fall, and winter. The plant stem usually turns black after being invaded by larvae. The larva feeds on the host plant, damaging the host until it enters the pupa stage.

The second, third, and fourth instar stages occur for a duration of 8, 8, and 9 days, respectively. The color of the caterpillars can vary. Most caterpillars are yellow or green, and may have pink markings. The peduncles offer the best protection for the caterpillars, which is why the caterpillars will typically remain at the base of the flower until metamorphosis occurs.

At higher altitudes , adults are on wing in December and January. The geranium bronze butterflies fly for short periods of time and frequently rest. It is believed that the butterfly has not become a pest in the South African regions because of an indigenous predator or parasitoid that has kept the butterfly population low. The predator has yet to be identified.

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Geranium bronze

In , the geranium bronze butterfly was first recorded in Rome , Italy , and rapidly spread along the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coastal areas before extending inland. In order to eat the stem of these plants, the larvae drill into the stems, causing damage to the plants. The eggs are 0. The eggs are typically laid close to the flower buds, but are occasionally laid on the leaves.

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