All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Abstract Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography—time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses.
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Body Thickness: 0. Mean live weight about g to g; body thickness about 4 mm. Body: cylindrical, elongate, with rounded ends. Tegument smooth, often covered by sand, but also showing round patches lacking sand. A red toxic fluid is secreted upon rubbing the body surface vigorously. Podia on bivium sparsely distributed, ending in a small disc around micrometer in diameter; podia on trivium numerous, short and stout, distributed on the radii and the interradii, their calcareous disc around 0.
Mouth: ventral, surrounded by 20 black tentacles. Anus terminal. Calcareous ring with large radial pieces and narrow interradials. Cuvierian tubules absent. Color: entirely black. Spicules: tegument with tables and rosettes; tables with circular disc showing 8 holes 4 central and 4 smaller holes in between and s spire of 4 pillars, ending in maltese crown; rosettes small and simple, more abundant in ventral tegument; ventral podia without rods, but with pseudo-plates; dorsal podia and papillae with short rods, showing denticulate borders.
Traditionally harvested, but the processed product is of low commercial value. In recent times, due to increasing demand, this species also appears in the processed products of many Pacific Islands. Collected by hand at low tide while wading on the reefs, or by divers Ref. Processed to trepang in Puerto Princesa, Palawan Ref.
A common shallow-water species, rarely found at depths of more than 20 m, mostly on inner and outer reef flats and back reefs or shallow coastal lagoons; abundant on sandy-muddy grounds with rubble or coral patches and in seagrass beds Ref. Body is often almost completely covered by sand grains Ref. The mean population density is about 0. Inshore shallow-water populations are denser, composed of smaller individuals, while deeper or outer reef populations, individuals are more scattered and with larger sizes Ref.
Feeds on Halimeda sp. Known to release a wine-colored exudate when rubbed vigorously Ref. Inshore shallow-water populations composed of smaller individuals, and reproduce mostly by transversal fission, while in deeper or outer reef populations the individuals are larger, and reproduce sexually Ref. Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity Reproduction Spawning Eggs Fecundity Larvae Inshore shallow-water populations composed of smaller individuals, and reproduce mostly by transversal fission, while in deeper or outer reef populations the individuals are larger, and reproduce sexually Ref.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sitotoksisitas dan induksi apoptosis ekstrak etanol teripang H. Pengujian sitotoksisitas dilakukan dengan metode MTT 3- 4,5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide menggunakan sel HeLa, T47D, WiDr dan sel normal Vero, sedangkan uji induksi apoptosis dilakukan terhadap sel dengan hasil uji sitotoksisitas terbaik menggunakan metode flowcytometry dan double staining. Nilai IC50 ekstrak H. Analisis flowcytometry dan double staining pada sel T47D memperlihatkan bahwa ekstrak etanol teripang H. Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Induction of Ethanol Extract Holothuria atra Jaeger, on Cancer Cells Abstract Holothuria atra is the marine organism found in Indonesian waters which is included in the phylum of Echinodermata and has the potential as an anticancer. This cytotoxicity test was conducted by MTT 3- 4,5-dimethylthiazolyl -2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay using HeLa, T47D, and WiDr cancer cell lines while apoptosis induction test was conducted on cell which had the best cytotoxicity result by flowcytometry and double staining.
Body Thickness: 0. Mean live weight about g to g; body thickness about 4 mm. Body: cylindrical, elongate, with rounded ends. Tegument smooth, often covered by sand, but also showing round patches lacking sand.
Common name: Black Sea Cucumber Local name: Classification: Class — sea cucumbers, Holothuroidea; order — Aspidochirotida; family — holothuriids, Holothuriidae Synonym: The species may be misidentified as Holothuria leucospilota, which is very similar. Size: Individuals of this species can grow to a length of 60 cm, but 20 cm is a more common size. The mean live weight is about g and can reach up to 1 kg. Habitat: Specimens of this species are conspicuous and common, lying exposed on sand flats of sandy or sand-covered rocky areas, sea grass beds, and among corals at depths from near the surface to about 20 m. The Black Sea Cucumber, the most commonly encountered holothurian in Qatar, is an omnivore feeder, sifting through the sediment with its tentacles and feeding on detritus and other organic matter while at the same time ingesting sand grains. Shallow-water populations are denser and composed of smaller individuals, which reproduce mostly by transversal fission, while populations in deeper waters with larger and more scattered individuals reproduce sexually. Holothuria atra emits a toxic red fluid when its skin is rubbed or damaged, which is a defense against predators.