Although civil wars continued, wars between established states have been rare since , with a few exceptions in the Middle East. It did not end war or stop the rise of militarism, and was unable to keep the international peace in succeeding years. Its legacy remains as a statement of the idealism expressed by advocates for peace in the interwar period. Shapiro and Oona A.
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March 3 The floundering Germany economy now collapsed, and as the government continued to print money, inflation became hyper-inflation. The descent into economic chaos, indicated by the statistics to the right, coupled with growing political separatist movements in Germany, led to the replacement of Cuno with Gustav Stresemann in August The plan was named after the commission chaired by the US economist Charles Dawes.
Although reparations were to be reduced, France nevertheless accepted the plan because it brought the Americans back into the picture, involving them in the collection of reparations. The Germans were unhappy, however, as there was no fixed date for completion of reparations. Britain and France were also concerned about the link between German payments and their own payments of war debts to the USA, which they had not wanted.
The Dawes Plan devised a new system of reparation payments. Stresemann promised to comply with these payments, and French troops were withdrawn from the Ruhr by August Yet the crisis had thrown up serious problems with the integrity of the League of Nations.
Instead of going to the League, France had taken matters into its own hands and attempted to seize payments with force.
Indeed, attempts by Britain and Sweden to take the crisis to the League were blocked by the French. Although the hostility of Britain and the USA to the invasion of the Ruhr could be seen as a clear condemnation of unilateral action, the overall impact of the invasion was bad for both the League and for international relations.
Politically, France had alarmed its former allies, and heightened the sense of patriotism within Germany. There were even unofficial support from certain elements for the promotion of an independent Rhineland. Germany recognised the Soviet government. The military cooperation would now take place secretly, and Germany was to rearm and train soldiers in Russia.
Britain wanted to win over Germany rather than alienate her. By this treaty, Germany and Russia introduced diplomatic relations and pledged their future cooperation. Germany fully recognized the Soviet government and both powers denounced reparations. In addition, the Rapallo Treaty provided for close economic cooperation. Arguably a more important consequence of this treaty was the military cooperation would now take place, allowing Germany to rearm and train secretly in Russia.
Knowledge of the Rapallo Treaty also made Britain more determined to win over Germany rather than alienate the nation further, lest Germany became even friendlier with Russia. However, it should be noted that these agreements took place outside of the League of Nations.
This resolved claims over Alsace-Lorraine and reassured France would not be invaded again. Germany signed treaties with Czechoslovakia and Poland to guarantee its eastern borders by arbitration. The Locarno Pact seemed to bod well for the future of collective security, and the new mood was dubbed "the Locarno spirit". Italy was unable to get similar guarantees over its southern border. France had changed its strategy for containing Germany. Locarno had undermined both the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations.
Although French forces left the Ruhr, there were allied troops in other Rhineland cities, as dictated by the terms of Versailles. At a conference in Locarno in Switzerland in February , Stresemann proposed a voluntary German guarantee of its western borders.
Significantly for the French and Belgians, this meant that Germany was resolved to give up its claims over Alsace-Lorraine, Malmedy, and Eupen. In return, Germany had some reassurance that France would not invade again, and it moved any potential for an independent Rhineland.
A series of treaties were signed. The major treaty guaranteed these boundaries between France, Belgium, and Germany. Also present at Locarno were representatives of Italy, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.
Germany signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, agreeing to change the eastern borders with these countries by arbitration only.
It also agreed that Germany should be admitted into the League of Nations. For many in post-war Europe, the Locarno agreement gave hope for future security. It suggested that former enemies could work together to resolve disputes, and uphold the Versailles settlement. The Locarno Pact seemed to bode well for the future of collective security. Italy, present at Locarno, had not managed to get similar agreements from Germany on its southern border.
The treaties France had with Poland and Czechoslovakia were little comfort to those respective countries, as it would be strategically difficult to offer tangible support following Locarno. In addition, France had not changed its view of Germany. Rather, it had just changed its strategy for containing Germany. Instead of confronting the Germans with force, France was now attempting to bring Germany into international agreements that involved the guarantees of other powers.
Security for France had been sought outside the League, and only a component of the Versailles Treaty had been guaranteed. Set a date for completion of repayments, Continued US involvement in reparation payments. John Maynard Keynes noted in that the foundations of both the Dawes and Young Plan was foreign money recovering European countries; "in the hands of American capitalists. The plan: Further reduced the total sum to be repaid by Germany, Set a date for completion of repayments — , and Continued US involvement in reparation payments.
As part of the deal, Britain and France agreed to end their occupation of the Rhineland five years ahead of schedule.
As Keynes had noted in , the foundations for both the Dawes and the Young Plan, and thus both Germany and European recovery, was foreign money. Two-thirds of investment in Germany during the s came from America. Its declaration, seen as important, would pursue objectives through peaceful means. It can be argued that there was no major conflict in the s because the main revisions power, Germany, was still recovering. Bell wrote that "Europe had survived, but it was still on the sick list".
Contemporary views of the pact were often positive; it was seen as an important declaration by governments that they would pursue their objectives through peaceful means. It could be argued that there was no major conflict in the s because the main revisionist power, i. Germany, was still recovering from World War I. In addition, the s were in the main period of relative economic boom and prosperity, which decreased international tensions and encouraged cooperation.
The USA had become a globally dominant power, and thus the world was ominously linked to its fortunes. The stability in Europe nurtured by capitalist American resources had collapsed. Poverty and despair was abundant, governments became fragile and extreme political groups emerged. Alliances and secret agreements outside of the League reemerged; old-style diplomacy was back. The worldwide economic depression that followed the Wall Street Crash of October had far-reaching effects.
The impact of the crisis on the economic, social, and ultimately political landscape of the world ushered in a return to a world dominated by national self-interest and the dominance of military forces. Poverty and despair have often fostered the rise of extremist groups, and the fragile liberal governments of the s found resurgent nationalist and aggressive political groups very difficult to restrict. The delicate European stability that had been nurtured by the resources of American capitalism was particularly vulnerable to a major economic collapse in the USA.
This was equally true of the recently democratic and liberal China. Governments were blamed for this crisis. In France, a moderate government was replaced by a radical left-wing government in the May election. In Britain, iron and steel production fell by 50 per cent and politics shifted to right-wing parties the British Labour Party lost seats in the elections.
When the money stopped, its economy collapsed; German unemployment stood at 1. The Weimar government and liberal democracy lost credibility and ended when Franz von Papen assumed the role of virtual dictator in May In Japan in , 50 per cent of factories closed and silk prices fell by two-thirds.
There ensued a radical shift to the right, linked to military factions. By , following a series of assassinations, the era of liberal politics in Japan was now over. The responses to the Depression by the democratic states seemed to lead back to an old-style diplomacy, e. The strategy of appeasing countries in response to aggression became more realistic. Economic sanctions were not palatable and to take on aggressors by force was not, at least in the early s when the Depression was tightening its grip, a viable option.
In September , the Kwantung Army claimed a bomb explosion near the town of Mukdem, a Chinese province, was evidence of growing disorder. Japan invaded. The League commission took more than a year to report, by which time the invasion and occupation was complete. The League asked Japan to return the land to China, and in response, Japan left the League, and claimed that the condemnation of their actions in China was hypocrisy by powers such as Britain, which had a long legacy of using force to achieve its objectives in China.
Japan was the only independent Asian power with its own empire — an empire that had expanded in when Japan took over the Mariana and Caroline Islands as mandates. However, Asia was already dominated by the European colonial powers; Britain, France, and the Netherlands.
They would not tolerate any threat to their interests in the region. In September , the Japanese army in Manchuria, the Kwantung Army responsible for protecting Japanese interests in the area , claimed that a bomb explosion near the town of Mukdem was evidence of growing disorder, and used it as an excuse to conquer the province.
In this incident, one key member of the League had attacked another member, China. The Japanese government agreed, but their army refused. This outcome exposed the lack of control the Japanese civilian government had over its military, It appointed a commission under Lord Lytton to investigate the crisis. The commission took more than a year to report, by which time the invasion and the occupation was complete.
It invited Japan to hand Manchuria back to China. In response, the Japanese said that they were leaving the League. They claimed that the condemnation of their actions in China was hypocrisy by powers such as Britain, which had a long legacy of using force to achieve its objectives in China. They may have had a point, but the new ideas embodied by the League represented a shift in international tolerance of this kind of empire-building behaviour. Why did the League fail to resolve the Manchurian Crisis?
Member states were unwilling to apply economic sanctions, however, it was the USA which had the strongest trading links with Japan.
March 3 The floundering Germany economy now collapsed, and as the government continued to print money, inflation became hyper-inflation. The descent into economic chaos, indicated by the statistics to the right, coupled with growing political separatist movements in Germany, led to the replacement of Cuno with Gustav Stresemann in August The plan was named after the commission chaired by the US economist Charles Dawes. Although reparations were to be reduced, France nevertheless accepted the plan because it brought the Americans back into the picture, involving them in the collection of reparations. The Germans were unhappy, however, as there was no fixed date for completion of reparations. Britain and France were also concerned about the link between German payments and their own payments of war debts to the USA, which they had not wanted.
Light blue: territories of parties Dark blue: League of Nations mandates administered by parties The Kellogg-Briand Pact was an agreement signed by a number of nations in , named after Frank B. Its intention was to outlaw the use of war to resolve disputes between signatory states. Its first signatories, on August 27, , were the United States, France, and Germany; most other powers signed afterwards. Although the pact was unsuccessful in preventing the re-militarization that eventually led to World War II, its intentions were incorporated into the United Nations Charter in the s. Their methods of trying to achieve this were varied — some pointed to the new World Court and the existing League of Nations as being the best forums in which to decide international disagreements, while others believed that disarmament was the first priority. The latter group tended to speak out in favor of the Washington Naval Conference and its successors. A further group, generally given the title of peace advocates, went further and declared that war itself should be made illegal.