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Photojournalists at the Labour Party Conference in Liverpool Photojournalism works within the same ethical approaches to objectivity that are applied by other journalists. What to shoot, how to frame and how to edit are constant considerations.
Photographing news for an assignment is one of the most ethical problems photographers face. Photojournalists have a moral responsibility to decide what pictures to take, what picture to stage, and what pictures to show the public. For example, photographs of violence and tragedy are prevalent in American journalism because as an understated rule of thumb, that "if it bleeds, it leads". The public is attracted to gruesome photographs and dramatic stories.
A lot of controversy arises when deciding which photographs are too violent to show the public. The family of the person is often not informed of the photograph until they see it published. The photograph of the street execution of a suspected Viet Cong soldier during the Vietnam War provoked a lot of interest because it captured the exact moment of death. The family of the victim was also not informed that the picture would run publicly. Especially regarding pictures of violence, photojournalists face the ethical dilemma of whether or not to publish images of the victims.
The compensation of the subject is another issue. Subjects often want to be paid in order for the picture to be published, especially if the picture is of a controversial subject.
Some pictures are simply manipulated for color enhancement, whereas others are manipulated to the extent where people are edited in or out of the picture. War photography has always been a genre of photojournalism that is frequently staged. Due to the bulkiness and types of cameras present during past wars in history, it was rare when a photograph could capture a spontaneous news event. Subjects were carefully composed and staged in order to capture better images.
Another ethical issue is false or misleading captioning. The Lebanon War photographs controversies is a notable example of some of these issue, and see photo manipulation: use in journalism for other examples.
It has inevitably complicated many of the ethical issues involved. The photojournalist often has no control as to how images are ultimately used. Members of the NPPA accept the following code of ethics The practice of photojournalism, both as a science and art, is worthy of the very best thought and effort of those who enter into it as a profession.
Photojournalism affords an opportunity to serve the public that is equaled by few other vocations and all members of the profession should strive by example and influence to maintain high standards of ethical conduct free of mercenary considerations of any kind. It is the individual responsibility of every photojournalist at all times to strive for pictures that report truthfully, honestly and objectively.
Business promotion in its many forms is essential, but untrue statements of any nature are not worthy of a professional photojournalist and we severely condemn any such practice.
It is our duty to encourage and assist all members of our profession, individually and collectively, so that the quality of photojournalism may constantly be raised to higher standards. It is the duty of every photojournalist to work to preserve all freedom-of-the-press rights recognized by law and to work to protect and expand freedom-of-access to all sources of news and visual information. Our standards of business dealings, ambitions and relations shall have in them a note of sympathy for our common humanity and shall always require us to take into consideration our highest duties as members of society.
In every situation in our business life, in every responsibility that comes before us, our chief thought shall be to fulfill that responsibility and discharge that duty so that when each of us is finished we shall have endeavored to lift the level of human ideals and achievement higher than we found it.
No Code of Ethics can prejudge every situation, thus common sense and good judgment are required in applying ethical principles. Mike Meadows, a veteran photographer of the Los Angeles Times , was covering a major wild fire sweeping southern California on 27 October His picture of a Los Angeles County firefighter, Mike Alves cooling himself off with water in a pool in Altadena ran both in the Times and nationally.
Meadows denied the accusation, claiming "I may have been guilty of saying this would make a nice shot, but to the best of my recollection, I did not directly ask him to do that. Other photographers at the scene claimed that Keating pointed with his own arm to show the boy which way to look and aim the gun.
After the Columbia Journalism Review reported the incident, Keating was forced to leave the paper. As early as the Crimean War in the midth century, photographers were using the novel technology of the glass plate camera to record images of British soldiers in the field.
As a result, they had to deal with not only war conditions, but their pictures often required long shutter speeds , and they had to prepare each plate before taking the shot and develop it immediately after.
This led to, for example, Roger Fenton traveling around in a transportable dark room, which at times made him a target of the enemy. These technological barriers are why he was unable to obtain any direct images of the action.
New digital cameras free photojournalists from the limitation of film roll length. Social media are playing a big part in revealing world events to a vast audience. Whenever there is a major event in the world, there are usually people with camera phones ready to capture photos and post them on various social networks.
Such convenience allows the Associated Press and other companies to reach out to the citizen journalist who holds ownership of the photos and get permission to use those photos in news outlets. As recently as 15 years ago, nearly 30 minutes were needed to scan and transmit a single color photograph from a remote location to a news office for printing.
Now, equipped with a digital camera, a mobile phone and a laptop computer, a photojournalist can send a high-quality image in minutes, even seconds after an event occurs.
Camera phones and portable satellite links increasingly allow for the mobile transmission of images from almost any point on the earth. The age of the citizen journalist and the providing of news photos by amateur bystanders have contributed to the art of photojournalism.
In recent years, as social media has become major platform on which people receive news and share events, Phone photography is gaining popularity as the primary tool for online visual communication. A phone is easy to carry and always accessible in a pocket, and the immediacy in taking pictures can reduce the intervention of the scene and subjects to a minimum. With the assistance of abundant applications, photographers can achieve a highly aesthetic way of conveying messages.
Once the pictures are uploaded onto social media, photographers can immediately expose their work to a wide range of audiences and receive real-time feedback from them. With a large number of active participants online, the pictures could also be spread out in a short period of time, thus evoking profound influence on society.
Having noticed the advantages of the combination of social media and Phoneography , some well-known newspapers, news magazines and professional photojournalists decided to employ Phone journalism as a new approach. When the London Bombings happened in July , for the first time, both the New York Times and the Washington Post ran photos on their front pages made by citizen journalists with camera phones.
In another instance, when superstorm Sandy hit the East Coast, causing great damage and casualty, Time sent out five photographers with iPhones to document the devastation. Photographers dived deep into the site and captured pictures in close proximity to the storm and human suffering. Then in , the Chicago Sun-Times got rid of its entire staff of 28 photographers, including John H. White , a Pulitzer Prize winner in photography.
The newspaper cited viewers shifting towards more video as a reason. They then employed freelance photographers and required them to train in how to use an iPhone for photography to fill the gap.
ISBN 13: 9780750685931
KOBRE PHOTOJOURNALISM PDF