Niet te verwarren met Agada rabbijnse literatuur. De Haggada behandelt het verhaal van de Joodse slavernij in Egypte en de uittocht uit Egypte. Voor vele teksten bestaan bekende wijsjes soms meerderen. Tevens wordt in de haggada uitleg gegeven over de gerechten van de sederavond, waaronder het ongezuurde brood matze , een symbolisch bot van een lam gedenkende aan het paaslam dat tijdens de tempel werd geslacht , een ei, bittere kruiden maror , zoete charoset en wat groente karpas. Veel gebruiken in de haggada zijn speciaal bestemd voor kinderen aangezien volgens de kinderen centraal staan bij het doorgeven van de traditie.

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Main article: Passover Seder Kadeish blessings and the first cup of wine [ edit ] Kadeish is the Hebrew imperative form of Kiddush. The Kiddush is traditionally said by the father of the house, but all Seder participants participate by reciting the Kiddush and drinking at least a majority of a cup of wine. According to most traditions, no blessing is recited at this point in the Seder, unlike the blessing recited over the washing of the hands before eating bread.

However, followers of Rambam or the Gaon of Vilna do recite a blessing. Karpas[ edit ] Each participant dips a sprig of parsley or similar leafy green into either salt water Ashkenazi custom said to serve as a reminder of the tears shed by their enslaved ancestors , vinegar Sephardi custom or charoset older Sephardi custom; still common among Yemenite Jews.

The smaller piece is returned to its place between the other two matzot. Magid relating the Exodus [ edit ] The story of Passover, and the change from slavery to freedom is told. Participants declare in Aramaic an invitation to all who are hungry or needy to join in the Seder. Halakha requires that this invitation be repeated in the native language of the country. It is customary for the youngest child present to recite the four questions. In some families, this means that the requirement remains on an adult "child" until a grandchild of the family receives sufficient Jewish education to take on the responsibility.

If a person has no children capable of asking, the responsibility falls to the spouse, or another participant. Why is it that on all other nights during the year we eat either leavened bread or matza, but on this night we eat only matza? Why is it that on all other nights we eat all kinds of vegetables, but on this night we eat bitter herbs? Why is it that on all other nights we do not dip [our food] even once, but on this night we dip them twice?

Why is it that on all other nights we dine either sitting upright or reclining, but on this night we all recline? The Four Sons[ edit ] The traditional Haggadah speaks of "four sons—one who is wise, one who is wicked, one who is simple, and one who does not know to ask". The Haggadah recommends answering each son according to his question, using one of the three verses in the Torah that refer to this exchange.

The wise son asks "What are the statutes, the testimonies, and the laws that God has commanded you to do? He is answered fully: You should reply to him with [all] the laws of pesach: one may not eat any dessert after the paschal sacrifice. The wicked son, who asks, "What is this service to you?

Therefore, he is rebuked by the explanation that "It is because God acted for my sake when I left Egypt. Where the four sons are illustrated in the Haggadah, this son has frequently been depicted as carrying weapons or wearing stylish contemporary fashions. The simple son, who asks, "What is this? The fifth child can represent the children of the Shoah who did not survive to ask a question [10] or represent Jews who have drifted so far from Jewish life that they do not participate in a Seder.

And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage. This telling describes the slavery of the Jewish people and their miraculous salvation by God.

At this part in the Seder, songs of praise are sung, including the song Dayenu , which proclaims that had God performed any single one of the many deeds performed for the Jewish people, it would have been enough to obligate us to give thanks.

After this is a declaration mandated by Rabban Gamliel of the reasons of the commandments concerning the Paschal lamb , Matzah , and Maror , with scriptural sources. Then follows a short prayer, and the recital of the first two psalms of Hallel which will be concluded after the meal. A long blessing is recited, and the second cup of wine is drunk. Rohtzah ritual washing of hands [ edit ] The ritual hand-washing is repeated, this time with all customs including a blessing.

An olive-size piece some say two is then eaten while reclining. Maror bitter herbs [ edit ] The blessing for the eating of the maror bitter herbs is recited and then it is dipped into the charoset and eaten. Shulchan Orech the meal [ edit ] A Seder table setting The festive meal is eaten. After the consumption of the afikoman, traditionally, no other food may be eaten for the rest of the night.

Additionally, no intoxicating beverages may be consumed, with the exception of the remaining two cups of wine.

Kos shel Eliyahu ha-Navi cup of Elijah the Prophet [ edit ] In many traditions, the front door of the house is opened at this point. Psalms —7 is recited in both Ashkenazi and Sephardi traditions, plus Lamentations among Ashkenazim.

Most Ashkenazim have the custom to fill a fifth cup at this point. This relates to a Talmudic discussion that concerns the number of cups that are supposed to be drunk. Given that the four cups are in reference to the four expressions of redemption in Exodus —7, some rabbis felt that it was important to include a fifth cup for the fifth expression of redemption in Exodus All agreed that five cups should be poured but the question as to whether or not the fifth should be drunk, given that the fifth expression of redemption concerned being brought into the Land of Israel, which—by this stage—was no longer possessed of an autonomous Jewish community, remained insoluble.

Over time, people came to relate this cup to the notion that Elijah will visit each home on Seder night as a foreshadowing of his future arrival at the end of the days, when he will come to announce the coming of the Jewish Messiah.

Many liberal Jews now include this ritual at their seders as a symbol of inclusion. The remaining psalms — , are recited at this point in the Hallel section, after Bareich. Psalm the Great Hallel is then recited, followed by Nishmat , a portion of the morning service for Shabbat and festivals. There are a number of opinions concerning the paragraph Yehalelukha which normally follows Hallel, and Yishtabakh , which normally follows Nishmat.

Most Ashkenazim recite Yehalelukha immediately following the Hallel proper, i. After Nishmat, they recite Yishtabakh in its entirety. Sephardim recite Yehalelukha alone after Nishmat. Afterwards the Fourth Cup of Wine is drunk and a brief Grace for the "fruit of the vine" is said. Some songs express a prayer that the Beit Hamikdash will soon be rebuilt. The last song to be sung is Chad Gadya "One Kid [young goat]". This seemingly childish song about different animals and people who attempted to punish others for their crimes and were in turn punished themselves, was interpreted by the Vilna Gaon as an allegory of the retribution God will levy over the enemies of the Jewish people at the end of days.

Following the Seder, those who are still awake may recite the Song of Songs , engage in Torah learning, or continue talking about the events of the Exodus until sleep overtakes them.

Authorship[ edit ] According to Jewish tradition, the Haggadah was compiled during the Mishnaic and Talmudic periods, although the exact date is unknown. It could not have been written earlier than the time of Judah bar Ilai circa CE , who is the latest tanna to be quoted therein. Rav and Shmuel circa CE argued on the compilation of the Haggadah, [24] and hence it had not been completed as of then.

Based on a Talmudic statement, it was completed by the time of "Rav Nachman". However, the Malbim , [28] along with a minority of commentators, believe that Rav and Shmuel were not arguing on its compilation, but rather on its interpretation, and hence it was completed before then. According to this explanation, the Haggadah was written during the lifetime of Judah ha-Nasi who was a student of Judah bar Ilia and the teacher of Rav and Shmuel the compiler of the Mishnah. The Malbim theorized that the Haggadah was written by Judah ha-Nasi himself.



JoJoramar Published inthe Prague Haggadah is known for its attention to detail in lettering and introducing many of the themes still found in modern texts. The E-mail message field is required. When such a volume was compiled, it became customary to add poetical pieces. Virtually no marks in the interior, very clean and clear pages throughout. By the end of the sixteenth century, only twenty-five editions had been printed.





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